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Training - A new approach

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Training - A New ApproachTechnological changes are ever increasing and this demands new skills. Many organisations find they must necessarily develop much of their talent requirements from internal sources. In addition, a large part of the work force must constantly be updated in new techniques and development. One of the fields in which India has made strident progress is computers. Computers have been introduced in many fields, but there has not been full acceptance by organisations. Government has also evinced keen interest in developing administrative information systems with adequate computerisation. But how to achieve all this is the question.

In public sector organisations, although computers were introduced, computerisation was quite remote. Factors such as fear of dislocation of many activities, and computers as a clerical labour saving device, instead as an efficiency increaser and the absence of a culture to show that a long and hard learning process is necessary to get the best mileage of computers contributed to all these misgivings.


The Centre for computer Aided Power Sector Studies (C-CAPSS) was formed with the objective of instilling a computer awareness in KSEB and to make use of computer as a tool in power sector studies and thereby introduce a computer culture in KSEB. C-CAPSS functions under the auspices of KSEB Officers' Association - an association consisting of officers of KSEB (viz. Ele. Engg., Mech. Eng., PRO, PO, Civil Eng., Ministerial Officers, Accounts Officers etc.)
With the objective of taking computers to the' doorsteps of its officers, C-CAPSS decided training officers, on computers on user friendly packages, like lotus 1-2-3 and dBase. For working on these the officers had to be familiar with the basic commands alone. This was followed with exercises based on real life situations. Emphasis was laid on the officers operating as end users with individual terminals or PC's and on using computers for the organisation vis-a-vis information technology. Although C-CAPSS introduced the programme for its members alone, KSEB requested C-CAPSS to teach other officers of the Board. Now, C-CAPSS is a recognised training centre for officers of the Board on Computer Applications. C-CAPSS is equipped with a PC-A T 80486 with 4 MB RAM, 80MB hard disc, with SVGA and a PC AT 80286 in network arrangement. Another PC-At 80286 and a PC work independently. Adequate infrastructure facilities such as a 132 Col DMP, IVSE, UPS exist. The air conditioned computer centre has library too. The centre admits only six officers at a time for a 14-day course of six hours duration per day.

The centre also imparts training to children of members of the staff of KSEB (irrespective of category) for a 7 day course every month. Part time courses are also conducted for staff of KSEB. This paper is intended to highlight two aspects.

1. Self Development, and

2. Introduction of a new training programme, different from an internal in-house programme and an external programme but containing the benefits of both a unique concept in HRM probably the first of its kind in India.

The primary responsibility of development rests with an individual. "Development is always self development." By developing an individual not only is the growth of the individual made but through this the corporate growth becomes emphasised.

Training is only a means towards an end and the end should be the furtherance of an organisation's objectives. Broadly two types of development exist:

(1) In company - Internal in- house programme. In this there may be

(i) On the job experience programmes, and

(ii) Formal training and development programmes.


In case of in-house programmes evaluation must be done from the reaction level and the learning level and then the job behavior level can be set up.

The main problem here is to find appropriate evaluation techniques by an organisation to evaluate its own training.

External Training Programmes

These programmes are different from in-house programmes, in considering their evaluation. In the model of the cycle of evaluation, it is not easy to find direct link between Training and the objectives ie, between T and E5. A different level of evaluation with casual link is to be sought for. The main problem about external courses is what training organisations have are different for ultimate objectives from the client objectives. The former is providing a service for the client organisation in return for financial consideration. Service consists of borrowing a resource (Trainees) from client organisation and changing resource in some way to increase its value to the client organisation. The trainee is a commodity being traded and may consider that he is not a part of the client organisation.
Training at C-CAPSS

This is both an in- house training programme and an external programme, but different from both.

As an - In house Programme

The evaluation is done for the reaction learning level and the job behavior level quite smooth. C-CAPSS being an external organisation in this context is able to evaluate the training most objectively and does not suffer from the anxiety of in-house trainers to reach as fast as possible E3 (effect of training on job behavior) and if possible to E4 and E5. However, the correct strategy is to proceed continuously one step at a time at C-CAPSS. Introducing evaluation at reaction level and using this information for setting reaction objectives for more training (TEI 01T).

(2) Later evaluation at the learning level and job behavior level are realised. C-CAPSS has also

the advantage that the following objectives were met.

1. Trainees had the basic aptitude to be able to acquire desired knowledge, skills and attitudes. (In KSEB graduation is a must for entry at different levels with a few exceptions).

Trainees coming to C-CAPSS were of three types:

(i) Trainees requesting for C-CAPSS training. (ii) Trainees not requesting for any centre.

Thus the training objectives are in tune with the trainees' states of learning, and

(iii) Trainees were receptive to the training.

In fact, there are over 200 officers requesting training at C-CAPSS on KSEB's HRD list. After this job behavior level is reached smoothly.


C-CAPSS training objectives are not different from the client organisation. It is true that a service is provided to the client organisation, but this is not for a financial consideration but for a more higher objective, of "creating an awareness of computers and to bring about a new organisational change, whereby officers-the backbone of management develop and thereby the organisation as a whole benefit (Training at C-CAPSS is free of cost). The service is done by borrowing the resource (Trainee) from KSEB and changing that resource in a positive way so as to increase its value to KSEB-the client organisation. Here C-CAPSS training is more like an in-house training programme.

Also, as a good number of officers belong to the officer organisation of C-CAPSS, this organisation also benefits as well as KSEB whose officers are trained.
Thus this training can be considered from the stand point of-


2. Client Organisation, and

3. Trainee

(1) C-CAPSS: It is interested in the different stages of evaluation

(i) Reaction
(ii) Learning
(iii) Job Behavior
(Iv) Organisation
(v) Ultimate Value.

However, it will be measured against other external institution and its services will be appreciated only if there is favourable reaction from the trainees. C-CAPSS has ensured this by-

(i) Designing curriculum for optional utilisation of resources to achieve the course objectives

(ii) Proper presentation of training material,

(iii) Evolve maximum practical sessions to maintain interest and high degree of participation,

(iv) Timing and sequencing of the course has been done so as to avoid dropouts due to pressure of office work etc. and

5. Critical choice of faculty

In fact this has been a good contributor to the success of C-CAPSS training programme.

Client organisation

Usually client organisations send people on training to achieve certain learning objectives and later assess whether this has been achieved. But more often this cannot be done as there may be a way of defining the learning objectives in the organisation. People are just sent for training because funds are allocated for this and usually the client organisation is buying blind.


C-CAPSS training helps-

(i) The training to be done at a profit i.e., at 01 and El

(ii) Specific objectives at job behaviour, organisation or ultimate lands 03,04 and 05 and

(iii) Trainee is treated as a human being and not as commodity.


(i) Evaluation is left to the trainee.

(ii) Improvement in communication occurs.

This new concept has so far been tried largely on officers of KSEB and this has proved successful, since it combines the best features of internal and external training programmes. Evaluation has also been found to be easier and effective. (So far KSEB has deputed eight batches, earlier C-CAPSS had also trained over 50 of its members). Thus this type of training is unique and superior to any other training methodology.


1. Training in Mgt. Development P.N. SINGH

2. ISTD Journals Vol. XVII No. 1, II, III, IV; Vol. XXIII No. 2

3. IIPA Journal Vol. XXXIV No. 2

4. Organisational Behaviour by VSP Rao and P.N. Narayana

5. Articles by Vinayshill Gautam.

6. Developing Executive Skills, -Harwood Mervill and Elizabeth Marting.

7. Project of ISTD by P. Anantha Kumar Menon

8. Organisational Behaviour by Stephan Robbin


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